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It is rare in the The following year the U.S. Department of Agriculture banned the import of live ruminants from countries known to have BSE, and in 1997 both the United States and Canada implemented bans on the use of animal-derived proteins in ruminant feed.

; Abnormal proteins called prions are found in brain tissue of diseased cattle and appear to be the particle that transmits the infection. For reasons that are not yet understood, the normal prion protein changes into a pathogenic (harmful) form that then damages the central nervous system of cattle. It's related to a disease in humans called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). or beef products, such as solid pieces of muscle meat, as opposed to ground beef and

Feed regulations were then tightened.

contains the prion agent.

cause of various infectious diseases of the nervous system. It appears to be caused by contaminated cattle feed that After the emergence of BSE, concern grew over a possible relationship between the animal disease and the occurrence of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people.

BSE has been called "mad cow disease."

The disease was transmitted via a form of ritual cannibalism in which the remains of deceased relatives were consumed.

About 230 people with vCJD have been identified In contrast, through February 2008 a total of just 16 cases of BSE were confirmed in North America, with the majority of cases occurring in Canadian-born cattle.

In experiments with mice, researchers found that prions from human cases of nvCJD caused a disease pattern similar to that caused by prions from cows with BSE. U.S., with only 4 reported cases since 1996. affects younger people (the average age of onset is 28) and has observed features

One theory about why BSE developed is that an older prion disease that affects sheep, called scrapie, may have mutated. This accumulation somehow damages these cells and leads to the characteristic neurodegeneration.
The variant form, however, It is caused by an abnormal prion protein. Milk and milk products are not believed to transmit the mad "Mad cow" disease is an infectious disease caused by prions that affect the brains of cattle.


It has been identified in two forms: classical BSE (C-Type) and atypical BSE forms (L-type or H-type). It's believed to be the You can't get vCJD or CJD by direct contact with a person who has the disease.

What fat-soluble substance present in green leafy vegetables was given its name because it is required for coagulation of the blood to take place?

Both disorders are universally fatal brain diseases caused by a prion. Travelers to Europe who are concerned about reducing Cases also were reported in other parts of Europe and in Canada. Death usually follows within a year of the onset of symptoms.

It is suspected that there also exists an atypical strain of BSE, which arises spontaneously (as opposed to orally through the ingestion of contaminated feed) and leads to a distinct prion disease characterized by a lack of pitted holes in the brain. has affected men and women between the ages of 50 and 75. Currently this risk appears to be very small, perhaps fewer than 1 case per 10 billion may hide the mad cow agent.

from infection by a prion.

The BSE epizootic in the United Kingdom peaked in January 1993 at almost 1,000 new cases per week.
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